History of Architecture and Urban Planning

  • prof. dr. ing. Carola Hein
    Room: Room: +01 oost 700
    c.m.hein@tudelft.nl
    http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/en/about-faculty/departments/architecture/organisation/history-of-architecture-urban-planning/

    Carola Hein is Professor and Head, Chair History of Architecture and Urban Planning at Delft University of Technology. She trained in Hamburg (Diplom‑Ingenieurin) and Brussels (Architecte) and earned her doctorate at the Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg in 1995. She has published and lectured widely on topics in contemporary and historical architectural and urban planning—notably in Europe and Japan—and has authored several articles and books on capital city issues in Brussels, Strasbourg, Luxembourg, Berlin, and Tokyo. From 1995 to 1999 she was a Visiting Researcher at Tokyo Metropolitan University and Kogakuin University, focusing on the reconstruction of Japanese cities after World War II and the Western influence on Japanese urban planning. Among other major grants, in 2004, she held a grant by the Brussels-Capital Region Government to investigate the urban location and architectural expression of the European capital function. In 2005-06 she has been working with a grant from the Lincoln Institute for Land Policy for research on Regional integration and land policies affecting the future development of Tallinn, Warsaw, and Budapest. In 2007, she received a Guggenheim Fellowship to pursue research on The Global Architecture of Oil.With an Alexander von Humboldt fellowship she investigated large scale urban transformation in Hamburg in international context between 1842 and 2008. Her current interest is the study of international networks and the transmission of architectural and urban ideas along these networks, focusing specifically on port cities and the global architecture of oil.

    Carola Hein has authored The Capital of Europe. Architecture and Urban Planning for the European Union (Praeger, 2004), and has edited Port Cities: Dynamic Landscapes and Global Networks London: Rutledge 2011; (with Pierre Laconte (eds,)) Brussels: Perspectives on a European Capital. Brussels: Publication of the Foundation for the Urban Environment, 2007. Bruxelles l’Européene: Capitale de qui? Ville de qui?/ European Brussels. Whose capital? Whose city? Brussels: Cahiers de la Cambre-Architecture n 5, Brussels: La Lettre Volée, 2006; (with Philippe Pelletier (eds.)). Cities, Autonomy and Decentralization in Japan. London: Routledge, 2006/2009: (with Jeffry Diefendorf, and Yorifusa Ishida (eds.)), Rebuilding Urban Japan after 1945. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. She has also published numerous articles in peer-reviewed journals, books, and magazines.

     

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  • dr. Herman van Bergeijk
    Room: Room: +01 oost 700
    h.vanbergeijk@tudelft.nl

    Herman van Bergeijk (b.1954) is an architectural historian who studied in the Netherlands (Groningen) and Italy (Venice). After working abroad and teaching at many universities in the United States, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands he obtained his Ph.D. in 1995 with a study into the work of the architect and town planner W.M. Dudok. In 1997 he was appointed at the University of Technology in Delft. In 2003 he taught a year at the Bauhausuniversität in Weimar. Since 2004 he is an Associate Professor in Architectural History in Delft. He has curated many exhibitions and published extensively on 17th and 20th Dutch and Italian architecture. Recent publications are: Het handschrift van de architect. Schetsen van Nicolaas Lansdorp en tijdgenoten (together with Michiel Riedijk)(2014), Aesthetic Economy. Objectivity in Dutch architecture (2014), and Jan Duiker, bouwkundig ingenieur (1890-1935). Van warm naar koud (2016). In the moment he is studying the more traditional architects in the 20th century, especially the work of A.J. Kropholler. He is an editor of the cultural magazine Eigenbouwer.

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  • drs. ir. Charlotte van Wijk
    Room: Room: +01 oost 700
    c.a.vanwijk@tudelft.nl

    Charlotte Van Wijk (Rotterdam, 1974) graduated from the Faculty of Architecture in Delft in 2005. She is employed at the department of History of Architecture & the Built Environment of the Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment at Delft Technical University. Besides teaching and research, her activities include the curatorship of a number of the faculty’s teaching collections, among which the Chair Collection. This task involves initiating symposia and expositions, collaboration with researchers in the field of design, research and design education and the realization of publications. The history of items in the collection and the background and development of designers, related to technology, are central themes.

    Readers interested in the Chair Collection may consult the following publications: C.A. van Wijk, The Chair Collection of the Delft Faculty of Architecture, Journal of Design History, volume 24, no. 1, 2011, p. 79-84; O. Máčel, S. Woertman & C. van Wijk, Chairs, Catalogue of the Delft Faculty of Architecture Collection, 010 Publishers, Rotterdam 2008.

    Below: Exhibition showing the results of a design course around items from the Chair Collection, August 2016, Central Library TU Delft. Photographer Jan van der Heul.

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  • dr. Cor Wagenaar
    Room: Room: +01 oost 700
    C.wagenaar@tudelft.nl

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  • dr. Everhard Korthals-Altes
    Room: Room K1.midden.020
    E.KorthalsAltes@tudelft.nl

    Everhard Korthals-Altes has been teaching Art History at the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Technology in Delft since 2005. The (international) reception and collecting of Dutch seventeenth- and eighteenth-century painting, and the boundaries between art and architecture (e.g. the representation of architecture in Dutch seventeenth- and eighteenth-century art) are his fields of special interest.

    Current research includes the project: The visualization of Architecture and Urbanism in the Arts between 1600 and 1800. Community pride and urban identity culminate in streets, squares and monumental buildings. They act as a dynamic billboard that addresses citizens and visitors alike: they represent what the city (or powerful factions within the citizenry) wishes to represent. These representative qualities are greatly enhanced by the use of the visual arts which depicted the city’s most important public spaces and representative buildings. Similar illustrations often embellished maps of the city. The visual arts condensed the representative qualities of the cityscape as well as providing it with a public not necessarily living in the city - this, obviously, was the case with artistic work which could be reproduced, such as engravings.

     

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  • dr. Reinout Rutte
    Room: B8-01OOST700
    R.J.Rutte@tudelft.nl

    Reinout Rutte (Roelofarendsveen 1972) is an urban and architectural historian. He studied history of architecture at the Free University in Amsterdam and historical geography at the University of Amsterdam, where he also finished his PhD thesis Stedenpolitiek en stadsplanning in de Lage Landen (12de-13de eeuw) [Urban politics and city planning in the Low Countries, 12th-13th centuries]. He has published and edited several articles and books about the history of the city and urbanism in The Netherlands, and about the making and mapping of the Dutch landscape. After his PhD-research at the University of Amsterdam he worked at the Netherlands Institute for Spatial Research (RPB, The Hague) on the book Tussenland [Shadowland]. Since 2004 he has been an assistant professor at the Chair History of Architecture and Urban Planning at the Faculty of Architecture of the Delft University of Technology. In 2016 he published the Atlas of the Dutch Urban Landscape. A Millennium of Spatial Development.

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  • dr. Linde Egberts

  • Hans van Dijk

  • Dolf Broekhuizen

  • dr. Otakar Macel

  • Annelies Broeders
    Room: Room: +01 oost 700
    a.broeders@tudelft.nl

  • Olivia Forty
    Room: B8-01OOST700

  • John Hanna
    J.M.K.K.Hanna@tudelft.nl

    Registering Conflicts: Spatial Production Under Traumatic Conditions

    Promoter: Prof. Dr. Carola Hein
    Daily Supervisor: Dr. Marc Schoonderbeek

    This research investigates the impact of the trauma caused by the Lebanese civil war and its ramifications, on the production of spaces in Beirut, based on a recognition of space as both an open product of social action and a structuring agency for further actions and spaces.  The research works on reconstructing a narrative of the everyday spatial practices in Beirut throughout the 15 years of the conflict. Following an interdisciplinary approach, it aims for fetching and collecting registers of spatial production by means of combining narrative and archival analyses with critical forensics of the built environment. The main objective of this work is to provide a comprehensive understanding of traumatic urbanism through directing the focus to the traumatic moment itself, as it benefits from the relatively long duration of the Lebanese civil war to observe and understand the spatiality of the civil, urban conflict.

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  • Elmira Jafari
    Room: +01 oost 700
    elmirajafari30@gmail.com

    This research is related to oil and urban transformation in Iran as one of the oil-rich countries in the world. The research examines how oil development during Iran's oil boom (60's and 70's) has triggered urban transformation from traditional city to modern one from both spatial and socio-cultural aspects. It approaches the subject through the lens of media as one of the best reflection of socio-cultural characteristics of the society. So, it aims to investigate to what extent Media directly and indirectly affected the process of urban transformation by creating positive image of oil industry and changing people's mindset in order to accept a new lifestyle. During Iran's modernization, coincidence of both the active presence of woman in the society and the emergence of oil industry has created intertwined relationship between woman and new space, modern society, media and more importantly oil industry. In short, the research investigates how oil has translated into cityscape, media and gender.  

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  • Giuseppe Lacanna
    Room: +01 oost 700
    G.Lacanna@tudelft.nl

    This research aims at inquiring about the impact of the built environment for healthcare facilities on: well-being, health and quality of life; contributing, therefore, to the development of knowledge on Evidence-Based Design. It specifically focuses on the Scandinavian and Dutch healthcare facilities context.

    Drawing from urban theories and a vision of the hospital as an urban hybrid building, free from any pre-addressed typological form, this research funnels into that patient-centred design policy that is currently shaping the new context of healthcare facilities. In this process, de-institutionalization and functional integration of daily urban-domestic routines are two aspects considered relevant: above all for a more comfortable patient hospital experience.

    This research project studies the impact of interior hospital public space experience on the promotion of psychosocial wellbeing among hospital users.

    Regardless the complexity of the architectural layout of the facilities, functional solutions organized as in an urban context, and inspired to the imageability theory, might support a higher level of social interactions, while reducing interactions associated to disorientation.

    Besides the hospital Public Space domain, other research interests are particularly addressed to Emergency Departments and Operating Theatres.

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  • Paolo de Martino
    Room: Room: +01 oost 700
    P.DeMartino@tudelft.nl

    Port-city development in Rotterdam and Naples: Entanglements in port and city decision-making processes.

    Promotors: Prof. Carola Hein (TUD) & Prof. Michelangelo Russo (Unina)

    Over the last fifty years, economic and technological transformations put into motion by containerization, planning strategies, political decision-making, and the consequent relocation of port activities outside the urban centers, have radically transformed the relations between city and port with deep consequences on the quality of life surrounding the port, urban form and local identity. Very often engineering port is the result of a sectorial and functional planning from port-related authorities. This is the main problem that creates difficulties in defining a common planned strategy about ports and port-cities. Recen debates among port engineers, as well as city officials, point to a need to reconnect planning for port and city. Studying the relationship between city and port from a functional, morphological, or historical point of view is not enough. Professional co-operation at different levels and scales is needed for the improvement of the approach to the topic. And a better understanding of historical engagement among the maing actors should take into account on one hand the needs of port actors, and on the other the needs of both local authorities and citizens.

    Research methodology: The research, focused mainly on the built envirnomnet, but also open to the dialogue with other disciplines, will investigate the intense interaction between different acotrs to find a common tool to facilitate the co-operation among them in order to design a port as added value within the city. 

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  • Phoebus Panigyrakis
    Room: Room: +01 oost 700
    P.I.Panigyrakis-1@tudelft.nl

    This thesis examines the editorial policies and publishing history of the American periodical, The Architectural Record in the quarter century from 1942 until 1967. The Architectural Record is the most successful and most long lived American architectural magazine of national circulation. Its history in the period of mid 20th century is revealing as to the paradigm shift of the architectural discipline and profession in-between the late phase of Modernism (1920s-1940s) and the emergence of Post-Modernism (1960s-1980s). The success and global influence of the magazine is due to the resources of its parent companies, F.W. Dodge and McGraw-Hill, its support by professional and academic organizations and the efforts and inventiveness of its editorial team. The editorial campaigns of the Architectural Record trace the struggle for readjustment of the modern movement in America divided in three defining phases: “war and readjustment” (1942-1949); “new meaning for modern architecture” (1949-1957); and “the image of the architect” (1958-1967). A second underlying narrative is the progression of the consumer culture into the fields of architecture preparing the ground for the emergence of Post-Modernism and introducing the architectural profession as a market-driven business, beyond an art and an engineering science.

    The period from 1942-1967 also coincides with the heydays of magazine publishing. The media revolution of magazine publishing contributed to the global cultural Americanization and is considered the starting point of the west’s contemporary state of “consumer society”. This is also manifested in the history of the Architectural Record with a growing post-industrial sensibility. This attitude formed the core of the cosmopolitan and business-like profile for architects that the Architectural Record campaigned for, along with its historically overriding editorial concerns for architectural education and professionalization.

    Keywords

    Architectural Record, Post-War U.S.A., Consumer Culture, Kenneth Kinglsey Stowell, Joseph B. Mason, Harold Dana Hauf, John Knox Shear, Emerson Goble.

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  • Rose Sarkhosh
    Room: Room: +01 oost 700
    Rose.Sarkhosh@tudelft.nl

    Shaping of urban imagery in Tehran through architectural and urban competitions based on government decisions before and after the revolution of 1979.

    City imagery of many urban cities is connected to the architectural competitions, which have been held during different political systems. The focus of this research is the city of Tehran, the Iranian capital, wherein the impact of the government’s decisions for the city imagery of Tehran is visible on many architectural elements. This research is a compilation of various methods that examines the role and value of the architectural and urban competitions throughout the history of modernization in Tehran comparing the two periods of before and after the 1979 revolution.  This research will demonstrate the effect of political changes on the urban design and the urban imagery in Tehran.

     
     
     

    Research Methodology:  The methodology of the thesis will be as follows:

    1. Investigating the two case studies of competitions during the Pahlavi dynasty (Last kingdom in Iran,  1925-1979):
      1. Azadi Tower- an open competition; 1971
      2. Abbas Abbad Tehran City Center, Kahn’s and Tange’s project – a closed competition;  1950s - 70's
    2. Investigating the two case studies of replacements for UI by new methodology of competitions during Islamic republic era (after the 1979 revolution);
      1.  Milad Tower- a closed competition; 1999-2008
      2. Abassabad City Center – several small competitions; 1980’s and 90s
    3. Comparison of the two eras (before and after 1979 revolution) and the effect of political changes on the urban design and the urban imagery in Tehran.

     

     
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  • Malkit Shoshan
    Room: +01 oost 700
    M.Shoshan@tudelft.nl
    http://www.seamlessterritory.org

    Malkit Shoshan is the founder of the Amsterdam-based architectural think tank FAST (Foundation for Achieving Seamless Territory). Her work explores the relationship between architecture, politics, and human rights. She is the author of the award-winning book Atlas of Conflict: Israel-Palestine (Uitgeverij 010, 2010) and co-author of Village: One Land Two Systems and Platform Paradise (Damiani Editore, 2014).
    In 2014, as a research fellow at Het Nieuwe Instituut, she developed the project ‘Drones and Honeycombs’, a research on the impact of the military apparatus on the city with three sub-themes: Drones, Compounds and Missions. In the fall of 2015, she was a Visiting Critic at the School of Architecture in Syracuse University.
    Shoshan studied architecture at the Technion - Israel Institute of Technology and at the IUAV - The University of Venice. She is a PhD candidate at Delft University of Technology. Her dissertation explores the role architecture and planning can have in conflict areas, focusing on UN missions. She is on the editorial board of Footprint, Delft architecture theory journal and co-editor of theUnmanned a publication series on architecture and security. She was a finalist for the Harvard GSD’s Wheelwright Prize (2014).


    Her work has been published in Volume, Abitare, Frame, Haaretz, New York Times, and other publications. She has exhibited at the Venice Architecture Biennale (2002, 2008), the Netherlands Architecture Institute (2007), Experimenta (2011), Het Nieuwe Instituut (2014), and at the Istanbul Design Biennale (2014).
    1998-2000 Architecture and urbanism, IUAV, Venice, Italy
    2000-2004 Architecture and town planning, Technion, Israel
    2005 Founded FAST, The Foundation for Achieving Seamless Territory
    2011-2015 PhD candidate, architecture and urbanism faculty, TU Delft, NL
    2014 Research-fellow at Het Nieuwe Instituut. Research title: Drones & honeycombs
    2015 Editorial board Footprint, TU Delft Architecture Theory Journal
    2015 2015 Visiting Critic, School of Architecture, Syracuse University.

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  • Fatma Tanis
    Room: Room: +01 oost 700
    F.Tanis-1@tudelft.nl

    This research explores how shifting networks have created a unique palimpsest of structures and actor networks between 16th and 21st century in Izmir, a port city on western coast in Turkey. It asks: How have shifting networks of goods, people and ideas inscribed themselves into the Izmir port and its waterfront adapting to transforming economic, political and cultural settings?

    Izmir is located intersection between east and west. It is located on the silk road, where ideas were imported and exported through commerce and port relations. Architectural design conditions and approaches were affected by cross-cultural interactions.

    This research aims to investigate the history of Izmir’s global networks as created in conjunction with the working port and the waterfront. It is concerned about cultural shifts as expressed on waterfront and explores the relationships, networks, and exchange of ideas with interrelated port cities in the frame of cross culturalism.

    This PhD project will explore the roles of various actors (including stakeholders; investors, companies, organizations, government, architects, urban planers, designers, architectural offices, authors, travelers, journalists), who took/take position directly or indirectly in exchange of ideas between Izmir and its networks in context of waterfront transformations between 16th and 21st Century. It will explore the logics of cross cultural design conditions through three periods based on Professor of sociology William I. Robinson’s globalization definitions [first period (between 17th and 19th century, first wave of globalization), second period (during the second wave of globalization, covers 20th and 21st century) and third period (3rd wave of globalization, having started in 1945 and being linked to the post-World War II and accelared until today)].

    Primary data will come from national archives, diaries of travelers, photograph archives and will be based on the site visits and observations, interviews with architectural offices, development corporation companies, public authorities and master plans. Secondary data will come from development strategies, documents provided by public authorities and academic publications.

    Research Methodology: First Chapter will explain the importance of transactions between port-related cities and their effects on exchange of cultures and ideas. Networks and economical changes will be emphasized within this frame.

    The second Chapter will explain the history of cultural exchanges on Izmir Waterfront. Sub-chapters will examine the first, second and third period during the history. First period will analyze the exchange of the cultures in Izmir Waterfront. The current situation of Izmir after de-industrialisation will be explained. The chapter points out the exchanges of ideas not only trade-related transactions but also world wide examples in such context.

    The third chapter will be the conclusion part and outcomes of 2nd chapter will be evaluated throughout the history. This research aims to investigate the roles of all actors, who took/take position directly or indirectly in exchange of ideas between Izmir and its networks in context of waterfront transformations throughout the history and to explore the logics of cross cultural design conditions.

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  • Sun Yanchen
    Room: Room: +01 oost 700
    Y.Sun-4@tudelft.nl

    A Comparative Study of Land Development in Modern Port Cities and its Impact on Urban Spatial Morphology

    Keywords: Land Development, Port City, Urban Spatial Morphology, Modern Tianjin, Rotterdam

    Research Summary: Between 1860 and 1945, the Chinese port ov Tianjin was the site of up to nine foreign-controlled concessions. With the emerging of concessions, the urban planning method of wesetern countries was introduced to Tianjin. From 1860 to 1945, the urban area expanded from 10km2 to 49.7km2. This research attempts to move beyond the traditional studies on modern Tianjin which tend to address the question of its architectural styles or city planning. It points out the urbanization of modern Tianjin was deeply intertwined with the land development and development of the port, which were deeply influenced by foreign colonizers. During my study in TU Delft, I will complete the research on land development and the process of urban socio-spatial development in modern Tianjin with files and archives collected in both China and European countries that used to build concessions in Tianjin. I will also do a comparative study of the land development of Tianjin and Rotterdam, find the similarities and dissimilarities, and propose a general influence mechanism of the land development and port movement of modern port cities on the urban spatial morphology. The research will produce work with crossover value between a variety of diferent subfields of history and political science.

    Research Methodology: Firstly, since the port city of Tianjin used to be the site of up to nine foreign-controlled soncessions, many original files and archives were taken away with foreign colonizers when they left Tinajin. Related original files and archives will be collected both in China and foreign countries from record office and libraries. With these materials, the emergence and development of new ports and their impact on the urban space will be discussed. The land management system and the complex forces of port movement will be analysed. The reciprocally relationship between municipal administration and the private owners will be studies. Secondly, computer programs such as AutoCAD, SketchUp and GIS will be used to redraw and analyse the old maps and photos. The process of the urban socio-spatial development of the land development of modern Tianjin and Rotterdam will be conducted, and the impact of western ideas on land development and port movement of modern Tianjin will be studies. A general influence of mechanism of the land development and port movement on the urban spatial morphology will be proposed. 

  • Kaiyi Zhu
    Room: +01 oost 700
    K.Zhu-1@tudelft.nl

    Resilience of Dwellings and the Creation of Liveable Historical Residential Areas in China

    There are numerous traditional residential buildings in China, but only in the last sixty years have academics studied historic dwellings. Currently, there are four metropolises, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, in mainland China, and with a number of unique traditional residential areas, such as Hutong, Linong, and Qilou. In 1928, due to Liang Sicheng’s contribution, the first Department of Architecture in China was established and Western theories of building conservation were introduced as well. However, due to the Chinese Cultural Revolution, preservation activities were interrupted in the 1950s. Also, beginning in the middle of the twentieth century, because of their ambition to develop the economy, Chinese elites attempted to expand their cities and transformed these places in response to the demands of urbanization.

    Despite learning from the experiences of other countries, an effective and harmonious development situation has not yet been established in China. The application of preservation concepts began again in the 1980s by the government; however, most contemporary architectural scholars have no clear knowledge about modern conservation theories. Even the researchers who have roots in this field might not appropriately explain and apply these theories in practice. From 1997 to 2008, some residential areas were preserved and listed as World Heritage Sites, such as the Ancient City of Pingyao and the Old Town of Lijiang. All of these sites are located in rural or suburban areas. Comparatively, in urban areas, some inhabitants are suffering from poor living conditions in high-density neighbourhoods. Indeed, this has become a common phenomenon in China’s cities. Development of modern cities is a process of capital operation. If residents who live in these historic dwellings or inhabitants who are affected by the circumstances and sites of those old buildings do not pay attention to protection issues of the traditional dwellings, then our common culture and history will eventually be eroded. The significance of protection lies not simply in displaying these historic residences, but in continually using sustainable renovation methods, and maintaining their own characteristics. Moreover, in the developing process, because of shortage of issues of funding, housing property and ambitions from governments and capitalists, attention to inhabitants’ real lives in the remaining residences will not be seriously concerned.

    Accordingly, in this research, answering how to support the sustainable development of traditional residential areas will include an overview of the history of heritage, dwellings, and neighbourhood preservation, its shifting values, goals, tools, and techniques, and their influence on preservation activities over the last sixty years in China. First, this study will make an argument about the specific implications of the theories, principles and values of preservation and their changes. It will also analyze case studies— mainly in Shanghai, Pingyao and Yangzhou — to record and classify different obstacles in preserving processes and the sustainable development of historical dwellings. With these steps, this study aims to strike a balance between the preservation of historic dwelling structures and recreating approaches for continuous use in order to benefit both the economic growth in cities and inhabitants’ lives in historical dwellings.

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  • Penglin Zhu
    Room: +01 oost 700
    P.Zhu@tudelft.nl

    In the last 50 years, the discovered oil flow in China shaped the built environment (urban form and architecture) and lifestyle. Compared to other countries the Chinese petroleum landscape is particular, due to its political and historical issues. Before 1988, the entire Chinese petroleum industry was organized by the central government, the Petroleum Ministry, and local oil committee. Oilfields were discovered and petroleum chemical industries were launched according to the Zeitgeist: striving for national oil independence. In 1988, the Petroleum Ministry was reorganized by the China National Petroleum Corporation, China National Offshore Oil Corporation, and China Petroleum and Chemical Corporation. Chinese petroleumscapes were partly reshaped by market influence. Now, the central government and the major three corporations intertwined together to push the development of oil industry and influence the petroleumscape.

    Firstly, this research explores the evolution of the physical presences of Chinese petroleumscapes from the following viewpoints: in which manner the Chinese petroleumscape evolved by the government intersecting oil industry, to which extent the Soviet urban planning ideas influenced the Chinese petroluemscape in 1960s, and how the petroleumscape transformed after the reorganization of the administrations. In the past 50 years, numerous physical presences of oil were constructed, such as oil industrial facilities including refinery factories, oil tanks, pipelines, etc; oil headquarters, research centres, industrial ancillary facilities including hospitals, museums, and open spaces etc; and retail facility-gas stations. These facilities were planned in the cluster around the oilfields or oil-ports for easy management and efficient work. This study argues the clusters as Petropolis, because they share the regional oil infrastructures and facilities even human resources. Before 1988 the settlements of the Petropolis shifted according to the national policies. After the reorganization of oil administration, the settlements were influenced by the national policies and market.

    Secondly, this research examines the transformation of mental presences of Chinese petroleumscapes from the following aspects: to which extent the Chinese petroleum mental presence was organized, how the shift of administration influenced the mental presence, and what were the changes in lifestyle. In the 1960s and 1970s, the mental presence of the Chinese petroleumscape was mainly imaginative, to promote Daqing as a study model for all Chinese industrial cities and evoke national striving for industrial development. Central government and local committees commissioned numerous artists to create paintings and photographs with the images of dedicated oil worker models or the panorama of the oil industry. These images were drawn on the walls, cited in books, and even printed on the daily commodities. After the reorganization, the mental presence tended to become more similar to other countries. The three major corporations are presented on signboards, TV shows, etc.

    Planning historians explore urban structures, cultural historians study the actuality of oil, and historians of the built environment examine the regional oil influence and oil's physical presence. This research will explore these views in context.

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